The Son of Man overthrows Babylon and builds the eschatological temple in fulfillment of Cyrus’s Decree
: Matthew 28:18–20’s combined allusions to OG Daniel 4:14(17), OG Daniel 7:13–14, and 2 Chronicles 36:23

  • Robert Jarrett Van Tine

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis (PhD)


The focus of this study is the Great Commission (Matthew 28:18–20). I argue that Matthew here combines allusions to Old Greek (OG) Daniel 4:14(17), OG Daniel 7:14, and 2 Chronicles 36:23. The possibility of these connections in Matt 28:18–20 is occasionally touched on by scholars; yet allusions to OG Dan 4:14(17) and/or 2 Chron 36:23 almost never receive sustained attention. Moreover, the significance of Matthew’s use of the OG version of Daniel in particular is not considered. In contrast, this thesis looks in detail at the combined allusion as well as its significance, especially its use of OG Daniel, for Matthew as a whole. I argue that the literary effect of the combined allusions in 28:18–20 is to present Jesus as the OG Danielic Son of Man whose heavenly kingdom is associated with the establishment of the eschatological temple, now shown to be Jesus’s disciples (i.e. the ekklesia). In so doing, Matthew presents the disciple-making mission as simultaneously fulfilling the OG Danielic eschatological vision of the defeat of the king/dom of Babylon and bringing to completion Cyrus’s Decree from 2 Chronicles 36:23 to rebuild the temple.

My thesis thus stands at the center of a confluence of lacunae in multiple fields. Within Matthean studies, it engages gaps in relation to the Gospel’s cultic restoration eschatology, use of a specific version of Daniel, and use of Chronicles. I also focus extensively on the form and message of OG Daniel—which has likewise been overlooked—in order to show its use and significance throughout Matthew and particularly in Matt 28:18–20. Finally, by drawing attention to the use of multiple texts in Matt 28:18–20, I engage a literary phenomenon that is only recently beginning to receive attention within the broader field of New Testament studies—composite allusion.
Date of Award29 Nov 2023
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • University of St Andrews
SupervisorDavid M. Moffitt (Supervisor)


  • Old Greek Daniel
  • Gospel of Matthew
  • Book of Daniel
  • Chronicles
  • Intertextuality
  • Allusion
  • Great Commission
  • Matthew 28:16-20
  • Daniel 7:13-14

Access Status

  • Full text embargoed until
  • 28th July 2025

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