Metacognitive calibration in exercise : an examination using running and high-intensity functional movement exercise

  • Konstantinos Liverakos

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis (PhD)


In the present thesis, I examined exercise calibration using running and high-intensity functional movement exercise (HIFME). In doing so, I analysed and presented results from eight studies across Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5. In Chapters 2 and 3, I explored the extent to which demographic factors (e.g. expertise, experience, age, and gender) are effective in informing us about running and HIFME calibration. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that such factors do exhibit associations with running calibration, though the relatively minor strength and inconsistency of these associations also indicate that we should not overestimate the factors’ contributions. Study 3 found a positive role of having a HIFME background in HIFME calibration, but other demographic factors did not exhibit associations with it. Overall, results from Chapters 2 and 3 highlighted the importance of considering demographic factors when assessing athlete calibration. However, they also highlighted the importance of understanding their limitations when doing so. In Chapter 4, I examined whether we can use self-reports of exercise metacognition and cognitive calibration to predict running and HIFME calibration. There was no significant association between any of these measures and exercise calibration in Studies 4, 5, and 6, suggesting that metacognition self-reports and calibration from other modalities are not reliable predictors of exercise calibration. In Chapter 5, I tested whether a minimal metacognitive intervention in the form of prediction guidance would lead to improved exercise calibration when participants received strategic, as opposed to impulsive, instructions. Findings from Studies 7 and 8 illustrated that strategic predictions facilitated prediction precision compared to impulsive predictions, though their effects on bias appeared to be less consistent and more dependent upon instructions. In Chapter 6, I discussed the general implications of the present thesis, and proposed ways in which future research can further explore the field of exercise calibration.
Date of Award2 Jul 2021
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • University of St Andrews
SupervisorAkira Robert O'Connor (Supervisor)


  • Metacognition
  • Calibration
  • Running
  • Exercise
  • High-intensity functional exercise
  • Bias
  • Absolute accuracy

Access Status

  • Full text embargoed until
  • 3rd March 2023

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