Zn2+ differentially influences the neutralisation of heparins by HRG, fibrinogen, and fibronectin.

Amelie Isabelle Sylvie Sobczak, Ramzi A. Ajjan, Alan J. Stewart*

*Corresponding author for this work

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For coagulation to be initiated, anticoagulant glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as heparins need to be neutralised to allow fibrin clot formation. Platelet activation triggers the release of several proteins that bind GAGs, including histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), fibrinogen and fibronectin. Zn2+ ions are also released and have been shown to enhance binding of HRG to heparins of a high- molecular weight (HMWH), but not to those of low-molecular weight (LMWH). The effect of Zn2+ on fibrinogen and fibronectin binding to GAGs is unknown. Here, chromogenic assays were used to measure the anti-factor Xa and anti-thrombin activities of heparins of different molecular weights and to assess the effects of HRG, fibrinogen, fibronectin and Zn2+. Surface plasmon resonance was also used to examine the influence of Zn2+-on binding of fibrinogen to heparins of different molecular weights. Zn2+ had no effect on the neutralisation of anti-factor Xa (FXa) or anti-thrombin activities of heparin by fibronectin, whereas it enhanced neutralisation of unfractionated heparin (UFH) and HMWH by both fibrinogen and HRG. Zn2+ also increased neutralisation of the anti-FXa activity of LMWH by fibrinogen but not HRG. SPR showed that Zn2+ in-creased fibrinogen binding to both UFH and LMWH in a concentration-dependent manner. The presented results reveal that an increase in Zn2+ concentration has differential effects upon anti-coagulant GAG neutralisation by HRG and fibrinogen, with implications for modulating anti-coagulant activity in plasma.
Original languageEnglish
Article number16667
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - 23 Nov 2023


  • Coagulation factors
  • Factor Xa
  • Fibrinogen/fibrin
  • Thrombin
  • Zinc


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