White organic light-emitting diodes with 4 nm metal electrode

Simone Lenk, Tobias Schwab, Sylvio Schubert, Lars Müller-Meskamp, Karl Leo, Malte Christian Gather, Sebastian Reineke

Research output: Contribution to journalLetterpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


We investigate metal layers with a thickness of only a few nanometers as anode replacement for indium tin oxide (ITO) in white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The ultrathin metal electrodes prove to be an excellent alternative that can, with regard to the angular dependence and efficiency of the OLED devices, outperform the ITO reference. Furthermore, unlike ITO, the thin composite metal electrodes are readily compatible with demanding architectures (e.g., top-emission or transparent OLEDs, device unit stacking, etc.) and flexible substrates. Here, we compare the sheet resistance of both types of electrodes on polyethylene terephthalate for different bending radii. The electrical performance of ITO breaks down at a radius of 10 mm, while the metal electrode remains intact even at radii smaller than 1 mm.
Original languageEnglish
Article number163302
Number of pages4
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 19 Oct 2015


  • Silver
  • Organic light emitting diodes
  • Gold
  • Anodes
  • Bending


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