VLA monitoring of LS V +44 17 reveals scatter in the X-ray – radio correlation of Be/X-ray binaries

J van den Eijnden*, A Rouco Escorial, J Alfonso-Garzón, J C A Miller-Jones, P Kretschmar, F Fürst, N Degenaar, J V Hernández Santisteban, G R Sivakoff, T D Russell, R Wijnands

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

LS V +44 17 is a persistent Be/X-ray binary (BeXRB) that displayed a bright, double-peaked period of X-ray activity in late 2022/early 2023. We present a radio monitoring campaign of this outburst using the Very Large Array. Radio emission was detected, but only during the second, X-ray brightest, peak, where the radio emission followed the rise and decay of the X-ray outburst. LS V +44 17 is therefore the third neutron star BeXRB with a radio counterpart. Similar to the other two systems (Swift J0243.6+6124 and 1A 0535+262), its X-ray and radio luminosity are correlated: we measure a power law slope β = 1.25+0.64-0.30 and a radio luminosity of LR = (1.6 ± 0.2) × 1026 erg s-1 at a 0.5 − 10 keV X-ray luminosity of 2 × 1036 erg s-1 (i.e. ∼ 1 per cent LEdd). This correlation index is slightly steeper than measured for the other two sources, while its radio luminosity is higher. We discuss the origin of the radio emission, specifically in the context of jet launching. The enhanced radio brightness compared to the other two BeXRBs is the first evidence of scatter in the giant BeXRB outburst X-ray – radio correlation, similar to the scatter observed in sub-classes of low-mass X-ray binaries. While a universal explanation for such scatter is not known, we explore several options: we conclude that the three sources do not follow proposed scalings between jet power and neutron star spin or magnetic field, and instead briefly explore the effects that ambient stellar wind density may have on BeXRB jet luminosity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4260-4271
Number of pages12
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume527
Issue number2
Early online date3 Nov 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2024

Keywords

  • Accretion
  • Accretion discs
  • Stars: individual: (LS V +44 17)
  • Stars: massive
  • Stars: neutron
  • Radio continuum: transients
  • X-rays: binaries

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