Visual analytics of delays and interaction in movement data

Maximilian Konzack, Thomas McKetterick, Tim Ophelders, Maike Buchin, Luca Giuggioli, Jed Long, Trisalyn Nelson, Michel A. Westenberg, Kevin Buchin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


The analysis of interaction between movement trajectories is of interest for various domains when movement of multiple objects is concerned. Interaction often includes a delayed response, making it difficult to detect interaction with current methods that compare movement at specific time intervals. We propose analyses and visualizations, on a local and global scale, of delayed movement responses, where an action is followed by a reaction over time, on trajectories recorded simultaneously. We developed a novel approach to compute the global delay in subquadratic time using a fast Fourier transform (FFT). Central to our local analysis of delays is the computation of a matching between the trajectories in a so-called delay space. It encodes the similarities between all pairs of points of the trajectories. In the visualization, the edges of the matching are bundled into patches, such that shape and color of a patch help to encode changes in an interaction pattern. To evaluate our approach experimentally, we have implemented it as a prototype visual analytics tool and have applied the tool on three bidimensional data sets. For this we used various measures to compute the delay space, including the directional distance, a new similarity measure, which captures more complex interactions by combining directional and spatial characteristics. We compare matchings of various methods computing similarity between trajectories. We also compare various procedures to compute the matching in the delay space, specifically the Fréchet distance, dynamic time warping (DTW), and edit distance (ED). Finally, we demonstrate how to validate the consistency of pairwise matchings by computing matchings between more than two trajectories.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)320-345
Number of pages26
JournalInternational Journal of Geographical Information Science
Issue number2
Early online date21 Jun 2016
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2017


  • Trajectpry analysis
  • Visual analytics
  • Similarity measures


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