VISION - Vienna survey in Orion III. Young stellar objects in Orion A

Josefa Elisabeth Grossschedl*, Joao Alves, Paula S. Teixeira, Herve Bouy, Jan Forbrich, Charles J. Lada, Stefan Meingast, Alvaro Hacar, Joana Ascenso, Christine Ackerl, Birgit Hasenberger, Rainer Koehler, Karolina Kubiak, Irati Larreina, Lorenz Linhardt, Marco Lombardi, Torsten Moeller

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


We have extended and refined the existing young stellar object (YSO) catalogs for the Orion A molecular cloud, the closest massive star-forming region to Earth. This updated catalog is driven by the large spatial coverage (18.3 deg2, ∼950 pc2), seeing limited resolution (∼0.7″), and sensitivity (Ks < 19 mag) of the ESO-VISTA near-infrared survey of the Orion A cloud (VISION). Combined with archival mid- to far-infrared data, the VISTA data allow for a refined and more robust source selection. We estimate that among previously known protostars and pre-main-sequence stars with disks, source contamination levels (false positives) are at least ∼6.4% and ∼2.3%, respectively, mostly due to background galaxies and nebulosities. We identify 274 new YSO candidates using VISTA/Spitzer based selections within previously analyzed regions, and VISTA/WISE based selections to add sources in the surroundings, beyond previously analyzed regions. The WISE selection method recovers about 59% of the known YSOs in Orion A’s low-mass star-forming part L1641, which shows what can be achieved by the all-sky WISE survey in combination with deep near-infrared data in regions without the influence of massive stars. The new catalog contains 2980 YSOs, which were classified based on the de-reddened mid-infrared spectral index into 188 protostars, 185 flat-spectrum sources, and 2607 pre-main-sequence stars with circumstellar disks. We find a statistically significant difference in the spatial distribution of the three evolutionary classes with respect to regions of high dust column-density, confirming that flat-spectrum sources are at a younger evolutionary phase compared to Class IIs, and are not a sub-sample seen at particular viewing angles.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberA149
Number of pages38
JournalAstronomy & Astrophysics
Publication statusPublished - 12 Feb 2019


  • Methods: observational
  • Stars: formation
  • Stars: pre-main sequence
  • ISM: clouds
  • Infrared: stars
  • Methods: statistical


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