Vaccination against COVID-19 reduced the mortality risk of COVID-positive hip fracture patients to baseline levels: the nationwide data-linked IMPACT Protect study

Andrew J. Hall*, N. D. Clement, A. M. J. MacLullich, T. O. White, A. D. Duckworth

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


This nationwide study used data-linked records to assess the effect of COVID-19 vaccination among hip fracture patients. Vaccination was associated with a lower risk of contracting COVID-19 and, among COVID-positive patients, it reduced the mortality risk to that of COVID-negative patients. This provides essential data for future communicable disease outbreaks.

COVID-19 confers a three-fold increased mortality risk among hip fracture patients. The aims were to investigate whether vaccination was associated with: i) lower mortality risk, and ii) lower likelihood of contracting COVID-19 within 30 days of fracture.

This nationwide cohort study included all patients aged > 50 years that sustained a hip fracture in Scotland between 01/03/20–31/12/21. Data from the Scottish Hip Fracture Audit were collected and included: demographics, injury and management variables, discharge destination, and 30-day mortality status. These variables were linked to government-managed population level records of COVID-19 vaccination and laboratory testing.

There were 13,345 patients with a median age of 82.0 years (IQR 74.0–88.0), and 9329/13345 (69.9%) were female. Of 3022/13345 (22.6%) patients diagnosed with COVID-19, 606/13345 (4.5%) were COVID-positive within 30 days of fracture. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that vaccinated patients were less likely to be COVID-positive (odds ratio (OR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34–0.48, p < 0.001) than unvaccinated patients. 30-day mortality rate was higher for COVID-positive than COVID-negative patients (15.8% vs 7.9%, p < 0.001). Controlling for confounders (age, sex, comorbidity, deprivation, pre-fracture residence), unvaccinated patients with COVID-19 had a greater mortality risk than COVID-negative patients (OR 2.77, CI 2.12–3.62, p < 0.001), but vaccinated COVID19-positive patients were not at increased risk of death (OR 0.93, CI 0.53–1.60, p = 0.783).

Vaccination was associated with lower COVID-19 infection risk. Vaccinated COVID-positive patients had a similar mortality risk to COVID-negative patients, suggesting a reduced severity of infection. This study demonstrates the efficacy of vaccination in this vulnerable patient group, and presents data that will be valid in the management of future outbreaks.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)353-363
Number of pages11
JournalOsteoporosis International
Issue number2
Early online date28 Oct 2023
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024


  • COVID-19
  • Frailty
  • Hip fracture
  • Mortality
  • Vaccination


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