Using nonhuman culture in conservation requires careful and concerted action

Susana Carvalho*, Erin G. Wessling, Ekwoge E. Abwe, Katarina Almeida-Warren, Mimi Arandjelovic, Christophe Boesch, Emmanuel Danquah, Mamadou Saliou Diallo, Catherine Hobaiter, Kimberley Hockings, Tatyana Humle, Rachel Ashegbofe Ikemeh, Ammie K. Kalan, Lydia Luncz, Gaku Ohashi, Alejandra Pascual-Garrido, Alex Piel, Liran Samuni, Serge Soiret, Crickette SanzKathelijne Koops

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Discussions of how animal culture can aid the conservation crisis are burgeoning. As scientists and conservationists working to protect endangered species, we call for reflection on how the culture concept may be applied in practice. Here, we discuss both the potential benefits and potential shortcomings of applying the animal culture concept, and propose a set of achievable milestones that will help guide and ensure its effective integration existing conservation frameworks, such as Adaptive Management cycles or Open Standards.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12860
JournalConservation Letters
VolumeEarly View
Early online date6 Jan 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 6 Jan 2022


  • Adaptive Management
  • Animal culture
  • Conservation policy
  • Open Standards
  • Target definition


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