Using HARPS-N to characterize the long-period planets in the PH-2 and Kepler-103 systems

Sophie C. Dubber, Annelies Mortier, Ken Rice, Chantanelle Nava, Luca Malavolta, Helen Giles, Adrien Coffinet, David Charbonneau, Andrew Vanderburg, Aldo S. Bonomo, Walter Boschin, Lars A. Buchhave, Andrew Collier Cameron, Rosario Cosentino, Xavier Dumusque, Adriano Ghedina, Avet Harutyunyan, Raphaelle D. Haywood, David Latham, Mercedes López-MoralesGiusi Micela, Emilio Molinari, Francesco A. Pepe, David Phillips, Giampaolo Piotto, Ennio Poretti, Dimitar Sasselov, Alessandro Sozzetti, Stéphane Udry

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Abstract

We present confirmation of the planetary nature of PH-2b, as well as the first mass estimates for the two planets in the Kepler-103 system. PH-2b and Kepler-103c are both long-period and transiting, a sparsely populated category of exoplanets. We use Kepler light-curve data to estimate a radius, and then use HARPS-N radial velocities to determine the semi-amplitude of the stellar reflex motion and, hence, the planet mass. For PH-2b we recover a 3.5σ mass estimate of Mp=109+30−32 M⊕ and a radius of Rp = 9.49 ± 0.16 R⊕. This means that PH-2b has a Saturn-like bulk density and is the only planet of this type with an orbital period P > 200 d that orbits a single star. We find that Kepler-103b has a mass of Mp,b=11.7+4.31−4.72 M⊕ and Kepler-103c has a mass of Mp,c=58.5+11.2−11.4 M⊕. These are 2.5σ and 5σ results, respectively. With radii of Rp,b=3.49+0.06−0.05 R⊕ and Rp,c=5.45+0.18−0.17 R⊕, these results suggest that Kepler-103b has a Neptune-like density, while Kepler-103c is one of the highest density planets with a period P > 100 d. By providing high-precision estimates for the masses of the long-period, intermediate-mass planets PH-2b and Kepler-103c, we increase the sample of long-period planets with known masses and radii, which will improve our understanding of the mass–radius relation across the full range of exoplanet masses and radii.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5103–5121
Number of pages19
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume490
Issue number4
Early online date12 Oct 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2019

Keywords

  • Techniques: photometric
  • Techniques: radial velocities
  • Techniques: spectroscopic
  • Planets and satellites; composition

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