Understanding the origins of problem geomagnetic storms associated with "stealth" coronal mass ejections

Nariaki V Nitta, Tamitha Mulligan, Emilia K J Kilpua, Benjamin J Lynch, Marilena Mierla, Jennifer O'Kane, Paolo Pagano, Erika Palmerio, Jens Pomoell, Ian R Richardson, Luciano Rodriguez, Alexis P Rouillard, Suvadip Sinha, Nandita Srivastava, Dana-Camelia Talpeanu, Stephanie L Yardley, Andrei N Zhukov

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Geomagnetic storms are an important aspect of space weather and can result in significant impacts on space- and ground-based assets. The majority of strong storms are associated with the passage of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) in the near-Earth environment. In many cases, these ICMEs can be traced back unambiguously to a specific coronal mass ejection (CME) and solar activity on the frontside of the Sun. Hence, predicting the arrival of ICMEs at Earth from routine observations of CMEs and solar activity currently makes a major contribution to the forecasting of geomagnetic storms. However, it is clear that some ICMEs, which may also cause enhanced geomagnetic activity, cannot be traced back to an observed CME, or, if the CME is identified, its origin may be elusive or ambiguous in coronal images. Such CMEs have been termed "stealth CMEs". In this review, we focus on these "problem" geomagnetic storms in the sense that the solar/CME precursors are enigmatic and stealthy. We start by reviewing evidence for stealth CMEs discussed in past studies. We then identify several moderate to strong geomagnetic storms (minimum Dst
Original languageEnglish
Article number82
Number of pages53
JournalSpace Science Reviews
Issue number8
Early online date3 Nov 2021
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • Coronal Mass Ejections
  • Space Weather
  • Magnetic Storms
  • Low-Coronal Signatures


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