TOI-4010: a system of three large short-period planets with a massive long-period companion

Michelle Kunimoto*, Andrew Vanderburg, Chelsea X. Huang, M. Ryleigh Davis, Laura Affer, Andrew Collier Cameron, David Charbonneau, Rosario Cosentino, Mario Damasso, Xavier Dumusque, A. F. Martnez Fiorenzano, Adriano Ghedina, R. D. Haywood, Florian Lienhard, Mercedes López-Morales, Michel Mayor, Francesco Pepe, Matteo Pinamonti, Ennio Poretti, Jesús MaldonadoKen Rice, Alessandro Sozzetti, Thomas G. Wilson, Stéphane Udry, Jay Baptista, Khalid Barkaoui, Juliette Becker, Paul Benni, Allyson Bieryla, Pau Bosch-Cabot, David R. Ciardi, Karen A. Collins, Kevin I. Collins, Elise Evans, Trent J. Dupuy, Maria V. Goliguzova, Pere Guerra, Adam Kraus, Jack J. Lissauer, Daniel Huber, Felipe Murgas, Enric Palle, Samuel N. Quinn, Boris S. Safonov, Richard P. Schwarz, Avi Shporer, Keivan G. Stassun, Jon M. Jenkins, David W. Latham, George R. Ricker, Sara Seager, Roland Vanderspek, Joshua Winn, Zahra Essack, Hannah M. Lewis, Mark E. Rose

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We report the confirmation of three exoplanets transiting TOI-4010 (TIC-352682207), a metal-rich K dwarf observed by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite in Sectors 24, 25, 52, and 58. We confirm these planets with the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher for the Northern Hemisphere radial velocity observations and measure their masses with 8−12% precision. TOI-4010 b is a sub-Neptune (P = 1.3 days, Rp=3.02−0.08+0.08R⊕ , Mp=11.00−1.27+1.29M⊕ ) in the hot-Neptune desert, and is one of the few such planets with known companions. Meanwhile, TOI-4010 c (P = 5.4 days, Rp=5.93−0.12+0.11R⊕ , Mp=20.31−2.11+2.13M⊕ ) and TOI-4010 d (P = 14.7 days, Rp=6.18−0.14+0.15R⊕ , Mp=38.15−3.22+3.27M⊕ ) are similarly sized sub-Saturns on short-period orbits. Radial velocity observations also reveal a super-Jupiter-mass companion called TOI-4010 e in a long-period, eccentric orbit (P ∼ 762 days and e ∼ 0.26 based on available observations). TOI-4010 is one of the few systems with multiple short-period sub-Saturns to be discovered so far.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages22
JournalAstronomical Journal
Issue number1
Early online date8 Jun 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2023


  • Transit photometry
  • Hot Neptunes
  • Exoplanets
  • Exoplanet systems
  • Exoplanet dynamics


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