The use of composite pulses for improving DEER signal at 94 GHz

Claire L. Motion, Scott L. Cassidy, Paul A. S. Cruickshank, Robert I. Hunter, David R. Bolton, Hassane El Mkami, Sabine Van Doorslaer, Janet E. Lovett, Graham M. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
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The sensitivity of pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements on broad-line paramagnetic centers is often limited by the available excitation bandwidth. One way to increase excitation bandwidth is through the use of chirp or composite pulses. However, performance can be limited by cavity or detection bandwidth, which in commercial systems is typically 100-200 MHz. Here we demonstrate in a 94 GHz spectrometer, with > 800 MHz system bandwidth, an increase in signal and modulation depth in a 4-pulse DEER experiment through use of composite rather than rectangular π pulses. We show that this leads to an increase in sensitivity by a factor of 3, in line with theoretical predictions, although gains are more limited in nitroxide-nitroxide DEER measurements.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)122-133
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance
Early online date2 Apr 2017
Publication statusPublished - May 2017


  • Composite pulses
  • Sensitivity enhancement
  • Echo simulation
  • DEER
  • Broadband non-resonant
  • W-band
  • Instrumentation


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