The rarer-sex effect

Andy Gardner*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


The study of sex allocation—that is, the investment of resources into male versus female reproductive effort—yields among the best quantitative evidence for Darwinian adaptation, and has long enjoyed a tight and productive interplay of theoretical and empirical research. The fitness consequences of an individual’s sex allocation decisions depend crucially upon the sex allocation behaviour of others and, accordingly, sex allocation is readily conceptualised in terms of an evolutionary game. Here, I investigate the historical development of understanding of a fundamental driver of the evolution of sex allocation—the rarer-sex effect—from its inception in the writing of Charles Darwin in 1871 through to its explicit framing in terms of consanguinity and reproductive value by William D. Hamilton in 1972. I show that step-wise development of theory proceeded through refinements in the conceptualization of the strategy set, the payoff function and the unbeatable strategy.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages10
JournalPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Issue number1876
Early online date20 Mar 2023
Publication statusPublished - 8 May 2023


  • Consanguinity
  • Game theory
  • Reproductive value
  • Sex allocation
  • Sex ratio
  • Unbeatable strategy


Dive into the research topics of 'The rarer-sex effect'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this