The preparation route and final form of V-MXenes override the effect of the O/F ratio on their magnetic properties

Pavla Eliášová*, Břetislav Šmíd, Jana Vejpravová, Shuo Li, Federico Brivio, Michal Mazur, Daniel N. Rainer, M. Infas H. Mohideen, Russell E. Morris, Petr Nachtigall

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Transition metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes) show a high potential for electrochemical energy storage in batteries and supercapacitors and for electrocatalysis. Their excellent electronic and magnetic characteristics have been highlighted in several theoretical studies. However, experimental research on MXenes is yet to confirm their predicted properties as candidates for controllable magnetic 2D materials. Here, we report our theoretical and experimental study of V2CTx MXenes (T = O, OH, F), providing key insights into their magnetism. Based on our density functional theory (DFT) analysis, we predicted ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) states of V2CTx, which are determined by the O/F ratio of surface functional groups. Accordingly, we prepared V2CTx MXenes in the form of multilayered powders and thin films with different O/F ratios. No experimental evidence of FM or AFM properties was found in any material. Nevertheless, powders and films with almost identical chemical compositions (in terms of O/F ratio) displayed different magnetic properties, whereas films with disparate chemical compositions revealed a similar magnetic character. Therefore, the preparation route and form of the final V2CTx material override the effect of the O/F ratio, which is often overestimated in theoretical studies. Moreover, these findings underscore the importance of preparing MXene materials to experimentally confirm their theoretically predicted properties.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Materials Chemistry C
VolumeAdvance Article
Early online date13 Mar 2024
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 13 Mar 2024

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