THE PETROGENESIS OF GROUP-2 ULTRAPOTASSIC KIMBERLITES FROM FINSCH MINE, SOUTH-AFRICA

K J FRASER, Chris Hawkesworth

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    43 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Major, trace element and radiogenic isotope results are presented for a suite of hypabyssal kimberlites from a single pipe, at the Finsch Mine, South Africa. These are Group 2 kimberlites characterised by abundant phlogopite +/- serpentine +/- diopside; they are ultrabasic (SiO2 < 42 wt. %) and ultrapotassic (K2O/Na2O > 6.9) igneous rocks, they exhibit a wide range in major element chemistry with SiO2 = 27.6-41.9 wt. % and MgO = 10.4-33.4 wt. %. (Sr-87/Sr-86)i = 0.7089 to 0.7106, epsilon(Nd) is -6.2 to -9.7 and they have unradiogenic (Pb-207/Pb-204)i contents which ensure that they plot below the Pb-ore growth curve. They have high incompatible and compatible element contents, a striking positive array between Y and Nb which indicates that garnet was not involved in the within suite differentiation processes, and a negative trend between K/Nb and Nb contents which suggests that phlogopite was involved. In addition, some elements exhibit an unexpected order of relative incompatibility for different trace elements which suggests that the intra-kimberlite variations are not primarily due to variations in the degree of partial melting. The effects of fractional crystallisation are difficult to establish because for the most part they have been masked by the entrainment of 50-60% mantle peridotite. Thus, the Finsch kimberlites are interpreted as mixtures of a melt component and entrained garnet peridotite, with no evidence for significant contamination with crustal material. The melt component was characterised by high incompatible element contents, which require both very small degrees of partial melting, and source regions with higher incompatible element contents than depleted or primitive mantle. Since the melt component was the principal source of incompatible elements in the kimberlite magma, the enriched Nd, Sr and Pb isotope ratios of the kimberlite are characteristic of the melt source region. The melt fractions were therefore derived from ancient, trace element enriched portions of the upper mantle, most probably situated within the sub-continental mantle lithosphere, and different from the low Sr-87/Sr-86 garnet peridotite xenoliths found at Finsch. Within the sub-continental mantle lithosphere old, incompatible element enriched source regions for the kimberlite melt fraction are inferred to have been overlain by depleted mantle material which became entrained in the kimberlite magma.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)327-345
    Number of pages19
    JournalLithos
    Volume28
    Issue number3-6
    Publication statusPublished - Nov 1992

    Keywords

    • MANTLE-DERIVED XENOLITHS
    • PB ISOTOPE
    • CRETACEOUS KIMBERLITES
    • ELEMENT GEOCHEMISTRY
    • ENRICHMENT PROCESSES
    • SR
    • ND
    • BEARING
    • LEAD
    • EVOLUTION

    Fingerprint

    Dive into the research topics of 'THE PETROGENESIS OF GROUP-2 ULTRAPOTASSIC KIMBERLITES FROM FINSCH MINE, SOUTH-AFRICA'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this