The KBC void and Hubble tension contradict ΛCDM on a Gpc scale - Milgromian dynamics as a possible solution

Moritz Haslbauer, Indranil Banik, Pavel Kroupa

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67 Citations (Scopus)


The KBC void is a local underdensity with the observed relative density contrast δ 1 - ρ/ρ0 = 0.46 ± 0.06 between 40 and 300 Mpc around the Local Group. If mass is conserved in the Universe, such a void could explain the 5.3σ Hubble tension. However, the MXXL simulation shows that the KBC void causes 6.04σ tension with standard cosmology (ΛCDM). Combined with the Hubble tension, ΛCDM is ruled out at 7.09σ confidence. Consequently, the density and velocity distribution on Gpc scales suggest a long-range modification to gravity. In this context, we consider a cosmological MOND model supplemented with 11eV/c2 sterile neutrinos. We explain why this νHDM model has a nearly standard expansion history, primordial abundances of light elements, and cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. In MOND, structure growth is self-regulated by external fields from surrounding structures. We constrain our model parameters with the KBC void density profile, the local Hubble and deceleration parameters derived jointly from supernovae at redshifts 0.023-0.15, time delays in strong lensing systems, and the Local Group velocity relative to the CMB. Our best-fitting model simultaneously explains these observables at the 1.14 per cent confidence level (2.53σ tension) if the void is embedded in a time-independent external field of 0.055 a0. Thus, we show for the first time that the KBC void can naturally resolve the Hubble tension in Milgromian dynamics. Given the many successful a priori MOND predictions on galaxy scales that are difficult to reconcile with ΛCDM, Milgromian dynamics supplemented by 11eV/c2 sterile neutrinos may provide a more holistic explanation for astronomical observations across all scales.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2845-2883
Number of pages39
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number2
Early online date26 Oct 2020
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020


  • Cosmology: theory
  • Dark matter
  • Galaxies: abundances
  • Gravitation
  • Large-scale structure of Universe
  • Methods: numerical


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