Rationale and experimental approach: Aggregate dredging is a growing source of anthropogenic disturbance in coastal UK waters and has the potential to impact marine systems through the smothering of benthic fauna with organically loaded screening discards. This study investigates the tolerance of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis to such episodic smothering events using a multi-factorial design, including organic matter concentration, temperature, sediment fraction size and duration of burial as important predictor variables. Results and discussion: Mussel mortality was significantly higher in organically loaded burials when compared to control sediments after just 2 days. Particularly,M. edulis specimens under burial in fine sediment with high (1%) concentrations of organic matter experienced a significantly higher mortality rate (p<0.01) than those under coarse control aggregates. Additionally, mussels exposed to the summer maximum temperature treatment (20°C) exhibited significantly increased mortality (p<0.01) compared to those in the ambient treatment group (15°C). Total Oxygen Uptake rates of experimental aggregates were greatest (112.7 mmolm-2 day-1) with 1%organic loadings in coarse sediment at 20°C. Elevated oxygen flux rates in porous coarse sediments are likely to be a function of increased vertical migration of anaerobically liberated sulphides to the sediment-water interface. However, survival ofM. edulis under bacterial mats of Beggiatoa spp. indicates the species' resilience to sulphides and so we propose that the presence of reactive organic matter within the burial medium may facilitate bacterial growth and increase mortality through pathogenic infection. This may be exacerbated under the stable interstitial conditions in fine sediment and increased bacterial metabolismunder high temperatures. Furthermore, increased temperature may impose metabolic demands upon themussel that cannot bemet during burial-induced anaerobiosis. Summary: Lack of consideration for the role of organic matter and temperature during sedimentation events may lead to an overestimation of the tolerance of benthic species to smothering from dredged material.