The ground and ionized states of azulene: a combined study of the vibrational energy levels by photoionization, configuration interaction, and density functional calculations

Michael H Palmer*, Marcello Coreno, Monica de Simone, Cesare Grazioli, Nykola C Jones, Søren Vrønning Hoffmann, R Alan Aitken

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

A synchrotron-based photoionization spectrum of azulene shows significant additional vibrational fine structure when compared to previous studies. This spectrum was successfully analysed by Franck-Condon (FC) methods. Previously reported zero-kinetic-energy electron spectra (ZEKE) for azulene, have been reinterpreted in FC terms, leading to some alternative assignments to the earlier work. The sequence of ionic states has been determined by ab initio configuration interaction (CI) methods, leading to reliable theoretical values for both the calculated adiabatic and vertical ionization energies (AIE and VIE respectively). VIE were calculated by both symmetry-adapted cluster (SAC-CI), together with Green’s function (GF) and Tamm Dancoff approximation (TDA), single excitation CI methods; AIE for highest states of each symmetry, were determined by open-shell self-consistent field (SCF) methods at the restricted Hartree-Fock level. Complete active space SCF(CASSCF) was used for the pairs of states 12A2 + 22A2 and 12B1 + 22B1 each of which occurs as antisymmetric and symmetric (higher energy) combinations. The combined ionic state sequences (AIE and VIE) from these methods are 12A2 < 12B1 < 22A2 < 22B1. The PES shows a series of broad bands above 11 eV, each of which are attributed to more than one ionisation. The calculated PES sequence of states up to 19 eV shows the SAC-CI and GF results are in almost exact agreement. The internal spacing of the bands is best reproduced by the simpler GF and TDA methods. States involving simultaneous ionization and electronic excitation are considered by both SAC-CI and TDA methods.
Original languageEnglish
Article number064305
Number of pages12
JournalThe Journal of Chemical Physics
Volume156
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Feb 2022

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