The first detection of Human Bocavirus Species 2 and 3 in raw sewage and mussels in South Africa

Oikwathaile Onosi, Nicole Upfold, Michael D Jukes, Garry Alec Luke, Caroline Mary Knox

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11 Citations (Scopus)


Human bocavirus (HBoV) has a global distribution and is associated with respiratory and enteric infections, particularly in the paediatric population. In this study, raw sewage and mussel samples were analysed for the presence of HBoV using nested PCR with primers targeting the VP1/VP2 junction. Amplification and sequencing of the 382 bp region followed by phylogenetic analysis indicated the presence of HBoV 2 in mussel samples and HBoV 3 in sewage samples. This is the first report describing the presence of enteric-associated HBoV in environmental samples from South Africa and in mussel samples from the African continent. The results signify the need for further studies examining the potential risk of foodborne transmission of HBoV and highlight the importance of continued screening to determine the prevalence and epidemiology of HBoV in South Africa.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)84-88
JournalFood and Environmental Virology
Early online date30 Nov 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2020


  • Human bocavirus
  • Parvoviridae
  • Wastewater
  • Shellfish
  • Enteric

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