The evolution of language: A comparative review

William Tecumseh Sherman Fitch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

112 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

For many years the evolution of language has been seen as a disreputable topic, mired in fanciful "just so stories" about language origins. However, in the last decade a new synthesis of modern linguistics, cognitive neuroscience and neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory has begun to make important contributions to our understanding of the biology and evolution of language. I review some of this recent progress, focusing on the value of the comparative method, which uses data from animal species to draw inferences about language evolution. Discussing speech first, I show how data concerning a wide variety of species, from monkeys to birds, can increase our understanding of the anatomical and neural mechanisms underlying human spoken language, and how bird and whale song provide insights into the ultimate evolutionary function of language. I discuss the "descended larynx" of humans, a peculiar adaptation for speech that has received much attention in the past, which despite earlier claims is not uniquely human. Then I will turn to the neural mechanisms underlying spoken language, pointing out the difficulties animals apparently experience in perceiving hierarchical structure in sounds, and stressing the importance of vocal imitation in the evolution of a spoken language. Turning to ultimate function, I suggest that communication among kin (especially between parents and offspring) played a crucial but neglected role in driving language evolution. Finally, I briefly discuss phylogeny, discussing hypotheses that offer plausible routes to human language from a non-linguistic chimp-like ancestor. I conclude that comparative data from living animals will be key to developing a richer, more interdisciplinary understanding of our most distinctively human trait: language.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)193-230
Number of pages38
JournalBiology and Philosophy
Volume20
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2005

Keywords

  • analogy
  • evolution
  • FOXP2
  • homology
  • kin selection
  • language
  • laryngeal descent
  • mirror neurons
  • semantics
  • sexual selection
  • speech
  • syntax
  • theory of mind
  • vocal imitation
  • RED DEER STAGS
  • RHESUS MACAQUES
  • SIGN-LANGUAGE
  • VOCAL-TRACT
  • SPEECH-PERCEPTION
  • NATURAL-SELECTION
  • NONHUMAN PRIMATE
  • MACACA-MULATTA
  • GALLUS-GALLUS
  • ALARM CALLS

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