The EBLM Project: IV. Spectroscopic orbits of over 100 eclipsing M dwarfs masquerading as transiting hot-Jupiters

Amaury H. M. J. Triaud, David V. Martin, Damien Ségransan, Barry Smalley, Pierre F. L. Maxted, David R. Anderson, François Bouchy, Andrew Collier Cameron, Francesca Faedi, Yilen Gómez Maqueo Chew, Leslie Hebb, Coel Hellier, Maxime Marmier, Francesco Pepe, Don Pollacco, Didier Queloz, Stéphane Udry, Richard West

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

65 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present 2271 radial velocity measurements taken on 118 single-line binary stars, taken over eight years with the CORALIE spectrograph. The binaries consist of F/G/K primaries and M dwarf secondaries. They were initially discovered photometricallyby the WASP planet survey, as their shallow eclipses mimic a hot Jupiter transit. The observations we present permit a precise characterisation of the binary orbital elements and mass function. With modelling of the primary star, this mass function is converted to a mass of the secondary star. In the future, this spectroscopic work will be combined with precise photometric eclipses to draw anempirical mass/radius relation for the bottom of the mass sequence. This has applications in both stellar astrophysics and the growing number of exoplanet surveys around M dwarfs. In particular, we have discovered 34 systems with a secondary mass below 0.2M and so we will ultimately double the number of known very low-mass stars with well-characterised masses and radii.The quality of our data combined with the amplitude of the Doppler variations mean that we are able to detect eccentricities as small as 0.001 and orbital periods to sub-second precision. Our sample can revisit some earlier work on the tidal evolution of close binaries, extending it to low mass ratios. We find some exceptional binary systems that are eccentric at orbital periods below three days, while our longest circular orbit has a period of 10.4 days. Amongst our systems, we note one remarkable architecture in J1146-42 that boasts three stars within one astronomical unit. By collating the EBLM binaries with published WASP planets and brown dwarfs, we derive a mass spectrum with twice the resolutionof previous work. We compare the WASP/EBLM sample of tightly bound orbits with work in the literature on more distant companionsup to 10 AU. We note that the brown dwarf desert appears wider, as it carves into the planetary domain for our short-period orbits.This would mean that a significantly reduced abundance of planets begins at ∼3MJup, well before the deuterium-burning limit. This may shed light on the formation and migration history of massive gas giants.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberA129
Number of pages62
JournalAstronomy & Astrophysics
Volume608
Early online date14 Dec 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2017

Keywords

  • Binaries: eclipsing
  • Techniques: photometric
  • Techniques: radial velocities
  • Brown dwarfs
  • Stars: statistics
  • Stars: luminosity function, mass function

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