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## Abstract

We propose to use multiple-imaged gravitational lenses to set limits on gravity theories without dark matter, specifically tensor-vector-scalar (TeVeS) theory, a theory which is consistent with fundamental relativistic principles and the phenomenology of Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) theory. After setting the framework for lensing and cosmology, we analytically derive the deflection angle for the point lens and the Hernquist galaxy profile, and study their patterns in convergence, shear and amplification. Applying our analytical lensing models, we fit galaxy-quasar lenses in the CfA-Arizona Space Telescope Lens Survey (CASTLES) sample. We do this with three methods, fitting the observed Einstein ring sizes, the image positions, or the flux ratios. In all the cases, we consistently find that stars in galaxies in MOND/TeVeS provide adequate lensing. Bekenstein's toy mu function provides more efficient lensing than the standard MOND mu function. But for a handful of lenses, a good fit would require a lens mass orders of magnitude larger/smaller than the stellar mass derived from luminosity unless the modification function mu and modification scale a(0) for the universal gravity were allowed to be very different from what spiral galaxy rotation curves normally imply. We discuss the limitation of present data and summarize constraints on the MOND mu function. We also show that the simplest TeVeS 'minimal-matter' cosmology, a baryonic universe with a cosmological constant, can fit the distance-redshift relation from the supernova data, but underpredicts the sound horizon size at the last scattering. We conclude that lensing is a promising approach to differentiate laws of gravity.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 171-186 |

Number of pages | 16 |

Journal | Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society |

Volume | 368 |

Issue number | 1 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 1 May 2006 |

## Keywords

- gravitational lensing
- cosmology
- theory
- ORDINARY ELLIPTIC GALAXIES
- GRAVITATIONAL LENS
- DARK-MATTER
- EXTINCTION CURVES
- SCALE STRUCTURE
- CLUSTERS
- MODELS
- CONSTRAINTS
- HYPOTHESIS
- SUPERNOVAE

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