T. F. Torrance on theosis and universal salvation

Oliver D. Crisp*

*Corresponding author for this work

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3 Citations (Scopus)
57 Downloads (Pure)


T. F. Torrance is widely thought to be one of the most important recent theologians in the Anglophone world. There has been quite a lot of research done on his soteriology. This essay contributes to that discussion by assessing five soteriological themes in his thought. These comprise: his account of the vicarious humanity of Christ, the notion of incarnation as atonement, his christological understanding of the divine image, his wholly objective view of the nature of justification and his atonement mechanism. I use this analysis as a means to investigate two broader notions in his theology. These are theosis and universal salvation. In keeping with several other recent treatments of his work I conclude his theology implies a doctrine of theosis. I also argue that it implies universalism, despite his emphatic rejection of the doctrine.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12-25
Number of pages14
JournalScottish Journal of Theology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2021


  • Incarnation
  • Justification
  • T. F. Torrance
  • Theosis
  • Universalism
  • Vicarious humanity


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