Synchrony and motor mimicking in chimpanzee observational learning

Delia Fuhrmann, Andrea Ravignani, Sarah Marshall-Pescini, Andrew Whiten*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)
2 Downloads (Pure)


Cumulative tool-based culture underwrote our species' evolutionary success, and tool-based nut-cracking is one of the strongest candidates for cultural transmission in our closest relatives, chimpanzees. However the social learning processes that may explain both the similarities and differences between the species remain unclear. A previous study of nut-cracking by initially naive chimpanzees suggested that a learning chimpanzee holding no hammer nevertheless replicated hammering actions it witnessed. This observation has potentially important implications for the nature of the social learning processes and underlying motor coding involved. In the present study, model and observer actions were quantified frame-by-frame and analysed with stringent statistical methods, demonstrating synchrony between the observer's and model's movements, cross-correlation of these movements above chance level and a unidirectional transmission process from model to observer. These results provide the first quantitative evidence for motor mimicking underlain by motor coding in apes, with implications for mirror neuron function.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5283
Number of pages7
JournalScientific Reports
Publication statusPublished - 13 Jun 2014


  • Mirror neurons
  • Wild chimpanzees
  • Nut-cracking
  • Imitation
  • Culture
  • Behavior
  • Apes
  • Coordination
  • Transmission
  • Inhibition


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