Symmetric expressions of surface tension components

Reinosuke Kusano*, Yukihiro Kusano

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Surface tensions of solid materials have been studied over 200 years and widely used for industrial or engineering applications. The surface tensions and surface tension components can be calculated using measured contact angles, for example, by the model studied by Owens and Wendt. The model is often represented in an asymmetric linear form, called the Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaelble method, with the use of the linear least squares method. However, due to the practical preference not to use many types of test liquids, the existing statistical analysis is unsuitable, especially when the data measured are scattered. The present work proposes symmetric linear and circular expressions of the model of the two surface tension components. The symmetric linear expression can be used for obtaining the polar and dispersion components of surface tension of a solid; it enables appropriate choices for test liquids, physically meaningful screening of measured values, and clear validation of deduced surface tension components of solids. The symmetric circular expressions can be applied to deduce polar and dispersion components of liquids by using test solids. In conjunction with this, appropriate choices of test solids can be determined.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2381-2401
Number of pages21
JournalThe Journal of Adhesion
Issue number16
Early online date3 Mar 2023
Publication statusPublished - 31 Mar 2023


  • Surface tension components
  • Contact angle
  • Symmetric expression


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