Submillimeter array observations of NGC 2264-C: molecular outflows and driving sources

Nichol Cunningham, Stuart L. Lumsden, Claudia Jane Cyganowski, Luke T. Maud, Cormac Purcell

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We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations at ∼3 arcsec resolution towards the brightest section of the intermediate/massive star-forming cluster NGC 2264-C. The millimetre continuum emission reveals ten 1.3 mm continuum peaks, of which four are new detections. The observed frequency range includes the known molecular jet/outflow tracer SiO (5−4), thus providing the first high-resolution observations of SiO towards NGC 2264-C. We also detect molecular lines of 12 additional species towards this region, including CH3CN, CH3OH, SO, H2CO, DCN, HC3N, and 12CO. The SiO (5−4) emission reveals the presence of two collimated, high-velocity (up to 30 km s−1 with respect to the systemic velocity) bipolar outflows in NGC 2264-C. In addition, the outflows are traced by emission from 12CO, SO, H2CO, and CH3OH. We find an evolutionary spread between cores residing in the same parent cloud. The two unambiguous outflows are driven by the brightest mm continuum cores, which are IR-dark, molecular line weak, and likely the youngest cores in the region. Furthermore, towards the Red MSX Source AFGL 989-IRS1, the IR-bright and most evolved source in NGC 2264-C, we observe no molecular outflow emission. A molecular line rich ridge feature, with no obvious directly associated continuum source, lies on the edge of a low-density cavity and may be formed from a wind driven by AFGL 989-IRS1. In addition, 229 GHz class I maser emission is detected towards this feature.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1742-1767
Number of pages26
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number2
Early online date23 Feb 2016
Publication statusPublished - 11 May 2016


  • Stars: formation
  • ISM: jets and outflows
  • ISM: molecules


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