Structural, electrical and relaxor properties of Sc-In solid solution in tetragonal tungsten bronze ceramics

Andrei Rotaru, Finlay D. Morrison

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
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The electrical properties of a family of tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) materials, Ba6Sc1-xInxNb9O30 (x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75), which display relaxor properties were characterised using high-temperature impedance spectroscopy and low-temperature dielectric spectroscopy. All powders were synthesized at 1250°C (24hours) + 1350°C (6.5hours), while the pellets were further sintered at 1350°C (12hours). At high temperature, the electrical conductivity in all samples is dominated by a single response, attributed to the bulk response, while the subtle asymmetry of the imaginary impedance peak suggests a minor contribution of the grain boundary response. In general, the Sc-In solid solutions samples exhibit similar electrical behaviour to the Sc compound, x = 1 reported previously (Ceram. Int. 2016, 42, 11810–11821). At low temperature all compounds exhibit frequency dependent relaxor behaviour. With increasing the content of In, the dielectric peaks are more asymmetric and the curves flatten more at temperatures above the transition temperature. The dipole freezing temperature, TVF, determined by Vogel-Fulcher (VF) analysis does not simply increases linearly as a function of M3+ (Sc3+,In3+) cation size, the extrapolation of VF-like curves results in considerably different values when compared to those found previously, since the acquired dielectric data are very sensitive to preparative conditions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2710-2718
Number of pages9
JournalCeramics International
Issue number2, Part B
Early online date20 Sept 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2019


  • Electrical conduction
  • Microstructure
  • Relaxor behaviour
  • Tetragonal tungsten bronzes
  • Vogel-Fulcher analysis


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