Strengthening gender responsiveness of the Green Climate Fund ecosystem-based adaptation programme in Namibia

Margaret Ndapewa Angula*, Immaculate Mogotsi, Selma Lendelvo, Karl Mutani Aribeb, Aina-Maria Iteta, Jessica Thorn

*Corresponding author for this work

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Scholars of gender and climate change argue that gender-blind climate change actions could exacerbate existing inequalities and undermine sustained climate change adaptation actions. For this reason, since 2017, the Green Climate Fund placed gender among its key programming prerequisites, making it the first multilateral climate fund to do so worldwide. However, to date, no lessons to inform planned gender-responsive ecosystem-based interventions in Namibia have been drawn from community-based natural resource management. Thus, this paper aims to share key lessons regarding the way in which gender assessment is useful in enhancing equity in an ecosystem-based adaptation programme for the Green Climate Fund. To this end, we conducted in-depth interviews and group discussions in the 14 rural regions of Namibia with 151 participants from 107 community-based natural resource management organisations (73.5:26.5; male:female ratio). The results identified gender imbalances in leadership and decision-making due to intersecting historic inequalities, ethnicity and geography, as well as other socio-cultural factors in local community-based natural resource management institutions. We also identified income disparities and unequal opportunities to diversify livelihoods, gendered differentiated impacts of climate change and meaningful participation in public forums. Overall, the assessment indicates that considering gender analysis at the initiation of a community-based climate change adaptation project is crucial for achieving resilience to climate change, closing the gender gap, building capacity to increase equity and empowering women in resource-dependent environments in Namibia and Sub-Saharan Africa more broadly.
Original languageEnglish
Article number10162
Number of pages16
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 10 Sept 2021


  • Adaptive capacity
  • Climate change adaptation
  • Community-based natural resource management
  • Community-based tourism
  • Gender responsiveness
  • Green Climate Fund
  • Nature-based solutions
  • Resilience


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