Rumination moderates the longitudinal associations of awareness of age-related change with depressive and anxiety symptoms

S. Sabatini*, B. Dritschel, F. S. Rupprecht, O. C. Ukoumunne, C. Ballard, H. Brooker, A. Corbett, L. Clare

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
5 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Objective
Lower awareness of age-related gains (AARC-gains) and higher awareness of age-related losses (AARC-losses) may be risk factors for depressive and anxiety symptoms. We explored whether: (1) Baseline AARC-gains and AARC-losses predict depressive and anxiety symptoms at one-year follow-up; (2) age and rumination moderate these associations; (3) levels of AARC-gains and AARC-losses differ among individuals with different combinations of current and past depression and/or with different combinations of current and past anxiety.

Methods
In this one-year longitudinal cohort study participants (N=3386; mean age = 66.0; SD = 6.93) completed measures of AARC-gains, AARC-losses, rumination, depression, anxiety, and lifetime diagnosis of depression and anxiety in 2019 and 2020. Regression models with tests of interaction were used.

Results
Higher AARC-losses, but not lower AARC-gains, predicted more depressive and anxiety symptoms. Age did not moderate these associations. Associations of lower AARC-gains and higher AARC-losses with more depressive symptoms and of higher AARC-losses with more anxiety symptoms were stronger in those with higher rumination. Individuals with both current and past depression reported highest AARC-losses and lowest AARC-gains. Those with current, but not past anxiety, reported highest AARC-losses.

Conclusion
Perceiving many age-related losses may place individuals at risk of depressive and anxiety symptoms, especially those who frequently ruminate.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1711-1719
Number of pages9
JournalAging & Mental Health
Volume27
Issue number9
Early online date10 Feb 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2023

Keywords

  • Mental health
  • Mood
  • Subjective age
  • Gains and losses
  • Prevention

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