Room-temperature relaxor ferroelectricity and photovoltaic effects in tin titanate directly deposited on silicon substrate

R Agarwal, Y Sharma, S Chang, K Pitike, C Sohn, S Nakhmanson, C Takoudis, H Lee, R Tonelli, Jonathan Gardner, James F. Scott, R Katiyar, S Hong

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Abstract

Tin titanate (SnTiO3) has been notoriously impossible to prepare as a thin-film ferroelectric, probably because high-temperature annealing converts much of the Sn2+ to Sn4+. In the present paper, we show two things: first, perovskite phase SnTiO3 can be prepared by ALD directly onto p-type Si substrates; and second, these films exhibit ferroelectric switching at room temperature, with p-type Si acting as electrodes. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements reveal that the film is single-phase, preferred-orientation ferroelectric perovskite SnTiO3. Our films showed well-saturated, square and repeatable hysteresis loopsof around 3 μC/cm2 remnant polarization at room temperature, as detected by out-of-plane polarization versus electric field (P-E) and field cycling measurements. Furthermore, photovoltaic and photoferroelectricity were found in Pt/SnTiO3/Si/SnTiO3/Pt heterostructures, of which properties can be tuned through band gap engineering by strain according to the first-principles calculations. This is a new lead-free room-temperature ferroelectric oxide of potential device application.
Original languageEnglish
Article number054109
JournalPhysical Review. B, Condensed matter and materials physics
Volume97
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Feb 2018

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