Quantification of soy isoflavones and their conjugative metabolites in plasma and urine: an automated and validated UHPLC-MS/MS method for use in large-scale studies

S.T. Soukup, N. Al-Maharik, N. Botting, S.E. Kulling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The biotransformation of isoflavones by gut microbiota and by drug metabolizing enzymes plays a crucial role in the understanding of their potential health-promoting effects. The purpose of our work was to develop a simultaneous, sensitive, and robust automated ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method to quantify the soy isoflavones daidzein and genistein, their conjugative metabolites, as well as their major microbial degradation products in order to provide a method for use in large clinical trials or animal studies. An automated, 96-well solid-phase extraction method was used to extract the isoflavone analytes from plasma and urine. Separation of genistein, daidzein, and 19 of its metabolites, including five glucuronides, seven sulfates, and two sulfoglucuronides, as well as five microbial metabolites, was achieved in less than 25 min using a sub-2 μm particle column and a gradient elution with acetonitrile/methanol/water as mobile phases. Analysis was performed under negative ionization electrospray MS via the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Validation was performed according to the analytical method validation guidelines of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) consisting of selectivity, accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, recovery, matrix effect, and robustness. All validated parameters essentially matched the FDA and ICH requirements. The application of this method to a pharmacokinetic study in postmenopausal women showed that isoflavones are extensively metabolized in vivo. A robust automated analytical approach was developed, which allows the handling of large sample sizes but nevertheless provides detailed information on the isoflavone metabolite profile leading to a better understanding and interpretation of clinical and animal studies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6007-6020
Number of pages14
JournalAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Volume406
Issue number24
Early online date8 Aug 2014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2014

Keywords

  • Soy isoflavones
  • Sulfates
  • Sulfoglucuronides
  • Glucuronides
  • Clinical study
  • Automated sample preparation

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