Potassium–carbonate co-substituted hydroxyapatite compositions: maximising the level of carbonate uptake for potential CO2 utilisation options

Duncan A. Nowicki*, Janet M. S. Skakle, Iain R. Gibson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Abstract

CO2 utilisation is a rapidly growing area of interest aimed at reducing the magnitude of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. We report the synthesis of potassium–carbonate (K–CO3) co-substituted hydroxyapatites with potassium and carbonate contents ranging from approximately 0.4–0.9 wt% and 3.4–13.0 wt% respectively via an aqueous precipitation reaction between calcium hydroxide, phosphoric acid and either potassium carbonate or potassium hydrogen–carbonate. The incorporated carbonate is situated on both hydroxyl and phosphate sites. A subsequent heat treatment in dry CO2 at 600 °C allowed for a K–CO3 co-substituted apatite containing approximately 16.9 wt% CO32− to be prepared, amongst the largest carbonate contents that have been reported for such a material to date. Although this work shows that K–CO3 co-substituted apatites with high levels of carbonate incorporation can be prepared using simple, room temperature, aqueous precipitation reactions with starting reagents unlikely to pose significant environmental risks, testing of these materials in prospective applications (such as solid fertilisers) is required before they can be considered a viable CO2 utilisation option. A preliminary assessment of the effect of potassium/carbonate substitution on the solubility of the as-prepared compositions showed that increasing carbonate substitution increased the solubility.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1713-1728
Number of pages16
JournalMaterials Advances
Issue number3
Early online date12 Jan 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 Feb 2022

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