Planetary science and exploration in the deep subsurface: results from the MINAR Program, Boulby Mine, UK

Samuel J. Payler*, Jennifer F. Biddle, Andrew J. Coates, Claire R. Cousins, Rachel E. Cross, David C. Cullen, Michael T. Downs, Susana O. L. Direito, Thomas Edwards, Amber L. Gray, Jac Genis, Matthew Gunn, Graeme M. Hansford, Patrick Harkness, John Holt, Jean-Luc Josset, Xuan Li, David S. Lees, Darlene S. S. Lim, Melissa MchughDavid Mcluckie, Emma Meehan, Sean M. Paling, Audrey Souchon, Louise Yeoman, Charles S. Cockell

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    18 Citations (Scopus)
    2 Downloads (Pure)

    Abstract

    The subsurface exploration of other planetary bodies can be used to unravel their geological history and assess their habitability. On Mars in particular, present-day habitable conditions may be restricted to the subsurface. Using a deep subsurface mine, we carried out a program of extraterrestrial analog research – MINe Analog Research (MINAR). MINAR aims to carry out the scientific study of the deep subsurface and test instrumentation designed for planetary surface exploration by investigating deep subsurface geology, whilst establishing the potential this technology has to be transferred into the mining industry. An integrated multi-instrument suite was used to investigate samples of representative evaporite minerals from a subsurface Permian evaporite sequence, in particular to assess mineral and elemental variations which provide small-scale regions of enhanced habitability. The instruments used were the Panoramic Camera emulator, Close-Up Imager, Raman spectrometer, Small Planetary Linear Impulse Tool, Ultrasonic drill and handheld X-ray diffraction (XRD). We present science results from the analog research and show that these instruments can be used to investigate in situ the geological context and mineralogical variations of a deep subsurface environment, and thus habitability, from millimetre to metre scales. We also show that these instruments are complementary. For example, the identification of primary evaporite minerals such as NaCl and KCl, which are difficult to detect by portable Raman spectrometers, can be accomplished with XRD. By contrast, Raman is highly effective at locating and detecting mineral inclusions in primary evaporite minerals. MINAR demonstrates the effective use of a deep subsurface environment for planetary instrument development, understanding the habitability of extreme deep subsurface environments on Earth and other planetary bodies, and advancing the use of space technology in economic mining.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)114-129
    Number of pages16
    JournalInternational Journal of Astrobiology
    Volume16
    Issue number2
    Early online date20 Apr 2016
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Apr 2017

    Keywords

    • Analog research
    • Deep subsurface
    • Habitability
    • Instrument testing
    • Spin-off

    Fingerprint

    Dive into the research topics of 'Planetary science and exploration in the deep subsurface: results from the MINAR Program, Boulby Mine, UK'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this