Photoporation and cell transfection using a violet diode laser

L Paterson, B Agate, M Comrie, R Ferguson, TK Lake, JE Morris, AE Carruthers, Christian Thomas Alcuin Brown, Wilson Sibbett, Peter Edward Bryant, Francis James Gunn-Moore, Andrew Clive Riches, Kishan Dholakia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

76 Citations (Scopus)


The introduction and subsequent expression of foreign DNA inside living mammalian cells (transfection) is achieved by photoporation with a violet diode laser. We direct a compact 405 nm laser diode source into an inverted optical microscope configuration and expose cells to 0.3 mW for 40 ms. The localized optical power density of similar to 1200 MW/m(2) is six orders of magnitude lower than that used in femtosecond photoporation (similar to 10(4) TW/m(2)). The beam perforates the cell plasma membrane to allow uptake of plasmid DNA containing an antibiotic resistant gene as well as the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene. Successfully transfected cells then expand into clonal groups which are used to create stable cell lines. The use of the violet diode laser offers a new and simple poration technique compatible with standard microscopes and is the simplest method of laser-assisted cell poration reported to date. (C) 2005 Optical Society of America.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)595-600
Number of pages6
JournalOptics Express
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 24 Jan 2005


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