Petrogenesis and stratigraphy of the high-Ti/Y Urubici magma type in the Parana flood basalt province and implications for the nature of 'Dupal'-type mantle in the South Atlantic region

D W Peate, Chris Hawkesworth, M M S Mantovani, N W Rogers, S P Turner

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    147 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The high-Ti/Y Urubici (or Khumib) magma type of the Parana-Etendeka large igneous province has a restricted spatial extent, near the southeast Brazilian coast and in the northern Etendeka (Namibia). Urubici flows are interbedded with low-Ti/Y Gramado flows. Flow correlations indicate that local topographic relief was important in controlling emplacement of flows, and that lavas near the coast have undergone up to 1 km of post-magmatic uplift relative to inland areas. Urubici magmas have undergone extensive fractional crystallization (MgO < 5.5 wt%). Stratigraphic variations highlight complexities of mixing and minor crustal assimilation indicative of open-system magmatic plumbing. The least contaminated samples have high La/Nb (similar to 1.5) and (Tb/Yb)N(similar to 2.5), Sr-Nd isotopes close to Bulk Earth (Sr-87/Sr-86(i) similar to 0.7050; epsilon(Ndi) - 2.7), and Dupal Pb isotopes with unradiogenic Pb-206/Pb-204 (similar to 17.6). These features are similar to those of the Walvis Ridge DSDP (Deep Sea Drilling Project) Site 525A basalts that define the EM1 oceanic mantle component, and many are also shared with local Cretaceous alkalic magmas that are inferred to be lithospheric mantle melts. Low Pb-206/Pb-204 material found in the Urubici and Site 525A basalts is not seen as a mixing end-member within the modern Tristan plume system or in South Atlantic mid-ocean ridge basalt. An origin from lithospheric mantle material, delaminated and dispersed within rite asthenosphere following continental break-zip, is preferred. Thus the South Atlantic Dupal mantle anomaly cannot be considered as a single entity: Urubici flood basalts and Walvis Ridge Site 525A basalts have a relatively shallow origin within originally lithospheric mantle, whereas the Tristan plume is a deep mantle upwelling.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)451-473
    Number of pages23
    JournalJournal of Petrology
    Volume40
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 1999

    Keywords

    • Parana food basalts
    • lava stratigraphy
    • Dupal mantle anomaly
    • lithosphere mantle
    • crustal assimilation
    • KAROO IGNEOUS PROVINCE
    • TRISTAN-DA-CUNHA
    • TRACE-ELEMENT
    • WALVIS RIDGE
    • PB ISOTOPE
    • CONTINENTAL LITHOSPHERE
    • GEOCHEMICAL CONSTRAINTS
    • TERTIARY BASALTS
    • INDIAN-OCEAN
    • SE BRAZIL

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