Paraconsistency everywhere

Greg Restall*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Paraconsistent logics are, by definition, inconsistency tolerant: In a paraconsistent logic, inconsistencies need not entail everything. However, there is more than one way a body of information can be inconsistent. In this paper I distinguish contradictions from other inconsistencies, and I show that several different logics are, in an important sense, ."paraconsistent". in virtue of being inconsistency tolerant without thereby being contradiction tolerant. For example, even though no inconsistencies are tolerated by intuitionistic propositional logic, some inconsistencies are tolerated by intuitionistic predicate logic. In this way, intuitionistic predicate logic is, in a mild sense, paraconsistent. So too are orthologic and quantum propositional logic and other formal systems. Given this fact, a widespread view.that traditional paraconsistent logics are especially repugnant because they countenance undercut. Many wellunderstood nonclassical logics countenance inconsistencies as well.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)147-156
Number of pages10
JournalNotre Dame Journal of Formal Logic
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2002


  • Intuitionistic logic
  • Paraconsistent logic
  • Quantum logic


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