Optogenetic stimulation probes with single-neuron resolution based on organic LEDs monolithically integrated on CMOS

Adriaan J. Taal, Ilke Uguz, Sabina Hillebrandt, Chang-Ki Moon, Victoria Andino-Pavlovsky, Jaebin Choi, Changmin Keum, Karl Deisseroth, Malte C. Gather*, Kenneth L. Shepard*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The use of optogenetic stimulation to evoke neuronal activity in targeted neural populations—enabled by opsins with fast kinetics, high sensitivity and cell-type and subcellular specificity—is a powerful tool in neuroscience. However, to interface with the opsins, deep-brain light delivery systems are required that match the scale of the spatial and temporal control offered by the molecular actuators. Here we show that organic light-emitting diodes can be combined with complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor technology to create bright, actively multiplexed emissive elements. We create implantable shanks in which 1,024 individually addressable organic light-emitting diode pixels with a 24.5 µm pitch are integrated with active complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor drive and control circuitry. This integration is enabled by controlled electrode conditioning, monolithic deposition of the organic light-emitting diodes and optimized thin-film encapsulation. The resulting probes can be used to access brain regions as deep as 5 mm and selectively activate individual neurons with millisecond-level precision in mice.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)669-679
Number of pages11
JournalNature Electronics
Volume6
Early online date17 Aug 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2023

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