## Abstract

Two-dimensional turbulence governed by the so-called alpha turbulence equations, which include the surface quasi-geostrophic equation (alpha = 1), the Navier-Stokes system (alpha = 2), and the governing equation for a shallow flow on a rotating domain driven by a uniform internal heating (alpha = 3), is studied here in both the unbounded and doubly periodic domains. This family of equations conserves two inviscid invariants (energy and enstrophy in the Navier-Stokes case), the dynamics of which are believed to undergo a dual cascade. It is shown that an inverse cascade can exist in the absence of a direct cascade and that the latter is possible only when the inverse transfer rate of the inverse-cascading quantity approaches its own injection rate. Constraints on the spectral exponents in the wavenumber ranges lower and higher than the injection range are derived. For Navier-Stokes turbulence with moderate Reynolds numbers, the realization of an inverse energy cascade in the complete absence of a direct enstrophy cascade is confirmed by numerical simulations. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 137-155 |

Number of pages | 19 |

Journal | Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena |

Volume | 191 |

Issue number | 1-2 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 15 Apr 2004 |

## Keywords

- alpha turbulence
- dual cascade
- energy spectra
- TWO-DIMENSIONAL TURBULENCE
- QUASI-GEOSTROPHIC FLOW
- 2-DIMENSIONAL TURBULENCE
- INVERSE CASCADE
- ROSSBY WAVES
- DIFFUSION
- BEHAVIOR