Neonatal and maternal outcomes following SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination: a population-based matched cohort study

Laura Lindsay, Clara Calvert, Ting Shi, Jade Carruthers, Cheryl Denny, Jack Donaghy, Lisa E M Hopcroft, Leanne Hopkins, Anna Goulding, Terry McLaughlin, Emily Moore, Bob Taylor, Krishnan Bhaskaran, Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Ronan McCabe, Colin McCowan*, Colin R Simpson, Chris Robertson, Aziz Sheikh, Rachel Wood*Sarah J Stock

*Corresponding author for this work

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Understanding the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy on neonatal and maternal outcomes informs clinical decision-making. Here we report a national, population-based, matched cohort study to investigate associations between SARS-CoV-2 infection and, separately, COVID-19 vaccination just before or during pregnancy and the risk of adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes among women in Scotland with a singleton pregnancy ending at ≥20 weeks gestation. Neonatal outcomes are stillbirth, neonatal death, extended perinatal mortality, preterm birth (overall, spontaneous, and provider-initiated), small-for-gestational age, and low Apgar score. Maternal outcomes are admission to critical care or death, venous thromboembolism, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and pregnancy-related bleeding. We use conditional logistic regression to derive odds ratios adjusted for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics (aORs). We find that infection is associated with an increased risk of preterm (aOR=1.36, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.16–1.59) and very preterm birth (aOR = 1.90, 95% CI 1.20–3.02), maternal admission to critical care or death (aOR=1.72, 95% CI = 1.39–2.12), and venous thromboembolism (aOR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.47–4.35). We find no evidence of increased risk for any of our outcomes following vaccination. These data suggest SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes, and COVID-19 vaccination remains a safe way for pregnant women to protect themselves and their babies against infection.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5275
Number of pages13
JournalNature Communications
Publication statusPublished - 29 Aug 2023


  • COVID-19


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