Nanoimprint lithography as a route to nanoscale back-contact perovskite solar cells

Jonathon Robert Harwell*, Ifor David William Samuel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Back-contact perovskite solar cells are of great interest because they could achieve higher performance than conventional designs while also eliminating the need for transparent conductors. Current research in this field has focused on making electrode structures with reduced widths to collect charges more efficiently, but current lift-off-based fabrication techniques have struggled to achieve electrode widths smaller than 1000 nm and are difficult to implement on large areas. We demonstrate nanoimprint lithography in an etch-down procedure as a simple and easily scalable method to produce honeycomb-shaped, quasi-interdigitated electrode structures with widths as small as 230 nm. We then use electrodeposition to selectively deposit conformal coatings of a range of different hole-selective layers and explore how the efficiency of back-contact perovskite solar cells changes as the feature sizes are pushed into the nanoscale. We find that the efficiency of the resulting devices remains almost unchanged as the electrode width is varied from 230 to 2000 nm, which differs from reported device simulations. Our results suggest that reducing recombination and improving the quality of the charge transport layers, rather than reducing the minimum feature size, are likely to be the best pathway to maximizing the performance of back-contact perovskite solar cells.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14940-14947
Number of pages8
JournalACS Applied Nano Materials
Issue number16
Early online date16 Aug 2023
Publication statusPublished - 25 Aug 2023


  • Perovskite
  • Solar cell
  • Back-contact
  • Nanoimprint
  • Lithography
  • Nanoscale
  • Interdigitated


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