Multiphase Experiments with at Least One Later Laboratory Phase. I. Orthogonal Designs

C. J. Brien*, B. D. Harch, R. L. Correll, R. A. Bailey

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


The paper provides a systematic approach to designing the laboratory phase of a multiphase experiment, taking into account previous phases. General principles are outlined for experiments in which orthogonal designs can be employed. Multiphase experiments occur widely, although their multiphase nature is often not recognized. The need to randomize the material produced from the first phase in the laboratory phase is emphasized. Factor-allocation diagrams are used to depict the randomizations in a design and the use of skeleton analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) tables to evaluate their properties discussed. The methods are illustrated using a scenario and a case study. A basis for categorizing designs is suggested. This article has supplementary material online.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)422-450
Number of pages29
JournalJournal of Agricultural, Biological and Environmental Statistics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2011


  • Analysis of variance
  • Experimental design
  • Laboratory experiments
  • Multiple randomizations
  • Multi-phase experiments
  • Multitiered experiments
  • Two-phase experiments


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