More on how and why: a response to commentaries

Kevin Neville Laland, John Odling-Smee, William Hoppitt, Tobias Uller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)
4 Downloads (Pure)


We are grateful to the commentators for taking the time to respond to our article. Too many interesting and important points have been raised for us to tackle them all in this response, and so in the below we have sought to draw out the major themes. These include problems with both the term ‘ultimate causation’ and the proximate-ultimate causation dichotomy more generally, clarification of the meaning of reciprocal causation, discussion of issues related to the nature of development and phenotypic plasticity and their roles in evolution, and consideration of the need for an extended evolutionary synthesis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)793-810
JournalBiology and Philosophy
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2013


  • Proximate causation
  • Ultimate causation
  • Mayr
  • Niche construction
  • Developmental plasticity
  • Developmental bias
  • Extended evolutionary synthesis


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