Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). XVII. Determining the 2D thermal structure of the HD 163296 disk

Jenny K. Calahan*, Edwin A. Bergin, Ke Zhang, Kamber R. Schwarz, Karin I. Öberg, Viviana V. Guzmán, Catherine Walsh, Yuri Aikawa, Felipe Alarcón, Sean M. Andrews, Jaehan Bae, Jennifer B. Bergner, Alice S. Booth, Arthur D. Bosman, Gianni Cataldi, Ian Czekala, Jane Huang, John D. Ilee, Charles J. Law, Romane Le GalFeng Long, Ryan A. Loomis, François Ménard, Hideko Nomura, Chunhua Qi, Richard Teague, Merel L. R. van't Hoff, David J. Wilner, Yoshihide Yamato

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


Understanding the temperature structure of protoplanetary disks is key to interpreting observations, predicting the physical and chemical evolution of the disk, and modeling planet formation processes. In this study, we constrain the two-dimensional thermal structure of the disk around the Herbig Ae star HD 163296. Using the thermochemical code RAC2D, we derive a thermal structure that reproduces spatially resolved Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations (~0"12 (13 au)-0"25 (26 au)) of 12CO J = 2 - 1, 13CO J = 1 - 0, 2 - 1, C18O J = 1 - 0, 2 - 1, and C17O J = 1 - 0, the HD J = 1 - 0 flux upper limit, the spectral energy distribution (SED), and continuum morphology. The final model incorporates both a radial depletion of CO motivated by a timescale shorter than typical CO gas-phase chemistry (0.01 Myr) and an enhanced temperature near the surface layer of the the inner disk (z/r ≥ 0.21). This model agrees with the majority of the empirically derived temperatures and observed emitting surfaces derived from the J = 2 - 1 CO observations. We find an upper limit for the disk mass of 0.35 M⊙, using the upper limit of the HD J = 1 - 0 and J = 2 - 1 flux. With our final thermal structure, we explore the impact that gaps have on the temperature structure constrained by observations of the resolved gaps. Adding a large gap in the gas and small dust additionally increases gas temperature in the gap by only 5%-10%. This paper is part of the MAPS special issue of the Astrophysical Journal Supplement.
Original languageEnglish
Article number17
Number of pages17
JournalAstrophysical Journal Supplement Series
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 3 Nov 2021


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