Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). V. CO gas distributions

Ke Zhang*, Alice S. Booth, Charles J. Law, Arthur D. Bosman, Kamber R. Schwarz, Edwin A. Bergin, Karin I. Öberg, Sean M. Andrews, Viviana V. Guzmán, Catherine Walsh, Chunhua Qi, Merel L. R. van't Hoff, Feng Long, David J. Wilner, Jane Huang, Ian Czekala, John D. Ilee, Gianni Cataldi, Jennifer B. Bergner, Yuri AikawaRichard Teague, Jaehan Bae, Ryan A. Loomis, Jenny K. Calahan, Felipe Alarcón, François Ménard, Romane Le Gal, Anibal Sierra, Yoshihide Yamato, Hideko Nomura, Takashi Tsukagoshi, Laura M. Pérez, Leon Trapman, Yao Liu, Kenji Furuya

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

96 Citations (Scopus)
1 Downloads (Pure)


Here we present high-resolution (15-24 au) observations of CO isotopologue lines from the Molecules with ALMA on Planet-forming Scales (MAPS) ALMA Large Program. Our analysis employs observations of the (J = 2-1) and (1-0) lines of 13CO and C18O and the (J = 1-0) line of C17O for five protoplanetary disks. We retrieve CO gas density distributions, using three independent methods: (1) a thermochemical modeling framework based on the CO data, the broadband spectral energy distribution, and the millimeter continuum emission; (2) an empirical temperature distribution based on optically thick CO lines; and (3) a direct fit to the C17O hyperfine lines. Results from these methods generally show excellent agreement. The CO gas column density profiles of the five disks show significant variations in the absolute value and the radial shape. Assuming a gas-to-dust mass ratio of 100, all five disks have a global CO-to-H2 abundance 10-100 times lower than the interstellar medium ratio. The CO gas distributions between 150 and 400 au match well with models of viscous disks, supporting the long-standing theory. CO gas gaps appear to be correlated with continuum gap locations, but some deep continuum gaps do not have corresponding CO gaps. The relative depths of CO and dust gaps are generally consistent with predictions of planet-disk interactions, but some CO gaps are 5-10 times shallower than predictions based on dust gaps. This paper is part of the MAPS special issue of the Astrophysical Journal Supplement.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5
Number of pages29
JournalAstrophysical Journal Supplement Series
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021


  • Astrochemistry
  • Protoplanetary disks
  • Exoplanet formation


Dive into the research topics of 'Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). V. CO gas distributions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this