Molecules with ALMA at Planet-forming Scales (MAPS). Complex kinematics in the AS 209 disk induced by a forming planet and disk winds

Maria Galloway-Sprietsma*, Jaehan Bae, Richard Teague, Myriam Benisty, Stefano Facchini, Yuri Aikawa, Felipe Alarcón, Sean M. Andrews, Edwin Bergin, Gianni Cataldi, L. Ilsedore Cleeves, Ian Czekala, Viviana V. Guzmán, Jane Huang, Charles J. Law, Romane Le Gal, Yao Liu, Feng Long, François Ménard, Karin I. ÖbergCatherine Walsh, David J. Wilner

*Corresponding author for this work

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We study the kinematics of the AS 209 disk using the J = 2–1 transitions of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O. We derive the radial, azimuthal, and vertical velocity of the gas, taking into account the lowered emission surface near the annular gap at ≃1 .″ 7 (200 au) within which a candidate circumplanetary-disk-hosting planet has been reported previously. In 12CO and 13CO, we find a coherent upward flow arising from the gap. The upward gas flow is as fast as 150 m s−1 in the regions traced by 12CO emission, which corresponds to about 50% of the local sound speed or 6% of the local Keplerian speed. Such an upward gas flow is difficult to reconcile with an embedded planet alone. Instead, we propose that magnetically driven winds via ambipolar diffusion are triggered by the low gas density within the planet-carved gap, dominating the kinematics of the gap region. We estimate the ambipolar Elsässer number, Am, using the HCO+ column density as a proxy for ion density and find that Am is ∼0.1 at the radial location of the upward flow. This value is broadly consistent with the value at which numerical simulations find that ambipolar diffusion drives strong winds. We hypothesize that the activation of magnetically driven winds in a planet-carved gap can control the growth of the embedded planet. We provide a scaling relationship that describes the wind-regulated terminal mass: adopting parameters relevant to 100 au from a solar-mass star, we find that the wind-regulated terminal mass is about one Jupiter mass, which may help explain the dearth of directly imaged super-Jovian-mass planets.
Original languageEnglish
Article number147
Number of pages13
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jun 2023


  • Planet formation
  • Protoplanetary disks
  • Radio interferometry


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