Mechanically scanned real time passive millimetre wave imaging at 94GHz

R. Appleby*, R. N. Anderton, S. Price, N. A. Salmon, G. N. Sinclair, P. R. Coward, A. R. Barnes, P. D. Munday, M. Moore, A. H. Lettington, D. A. Robertson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

71 Citations (Scopus)


It is well known that millimetre wave systems can penetrate poor weather and battlefield obscurants far better than infrared or visible systems. Thermal imaging in this band offers the opportunity for passive surveillance and navigation, allowing military operations in poor weather. We have previously reported a novel real time mechanically scanned passive millimetre wave imager operating at 35GHz and in this paper a 94GHz variant will be described. This 94GHz imager has a field-of-view of 60° x 30° and has diffraction limited performance over the central two thirds of this field-of-view. It is relatively inexpensive because the scene is imaged using a linear array of direct detection receivers and compact folded optics. The receiver array has been constructed using indium phosphide monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) allowing high gain and low noise figure to be achieved. The compact optics consist of a polarisation sensitive mirror and a Faraday rotator. The mirror is constructed from expanded polystyrene, supporting a printed copper grid etched onto a PTFE/glass fibre substrate. These materials are low cost and readily available. The Faraday rotator is made from a commercial grade plasto-ferrite sandwiched between antireflection coatings. The optics produce a conical scan pattern and image processing is used to generate a raster scan pattern and to perform gain and offset corrections.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 2003
EventPassive Milimeter - Wave Imaging Technology VI and Radar Sensor Technology VII - Orlando, FL, United States
Duration: 23 Apr 200324 Apr 2003


ConferencePassive Milimeter - Wave Imaging Technology VI and Radar Sensor Technology VII
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityOrlando, FL


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