Lutein and zeaxanthin intake during pregnancy and visual function in offspring at 11-12 years of age

Martin Anderson*, Dora Romaguera, Dave Saint-Amour, Serena Fossati, Silvia Fochs, Nuria Pey, Martine Vrijheid, Jordi Julvez

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
1 Downloads (Pure)


(1) Background: Lutein and zeaxanthin (L&Z) are essential dietary nutrients that are a crucial component of the human macula, contributing to visual functioning. They easily cross the placental barrier, so that retinal deposition commences during foetal development. This study aims to assess associations between maternal L&Z intake during pregnancy and offspring visual function at 11-12 years. (2) Methods: Using the Spanish INfancia y Medio Ambiente Project (INMA) Sabadell birth cohort, 431 mother-child pairs were analysed. L&Z data were obtained from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) at week 12 and 32 of pregnancy, alongside other nutritional and sociodemographic covariates. Contrast vision (CS) and visual acuity (VA) were assessed using the automated Freiburg Acuity and Contrast Testing (FRACT) battery. Low CS and VA were defined as being below the 20th cohort centile. Associations were explored using multiple logistic regression. (3) Results: After controlling for potential confounders, L&Z intake during the 1st and 3rd trimester did not reveal any statistically significant association with either CS or VA in offspring at age 11/12 years. (4) Conclusions: No evidence of a long-term association between L&Z intake during pregnancy and visual function in offspring was found. Further larger long-term studies including blood L&Z levels are required to confirm this result.
Original languageEnglish
Article number872
Number of pages20
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 18 Feb 2022


  • Visual acuity
  • Contrast sensitivity
  • Pregnancy
  • Childhood
  • Lutein
  • Zeaxanthin
  • Population-based birth cohort


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