Long-term imaging of cellular forces with high precision by elastic resonator interference stress microscopy

Nils M. Kronenberg, Philipp Liehm, Anja Steude, Johanna A. Knipper, Jessica G. Borger, Giuliano Scarcelli, Kristian Franze, Simon J. Powis, Malte C. Gather

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


Cellular forces are crucial for many biological processes but current methods to image them have limitations with respect to data analysis, resolution and throughput. Here, we present a robust approach to measure mechanical cell–substrate interactions in diverse biological systems by interferometrically detecting deformations of an elastic micro-cavity. Elastic resonator interference stress microscopy (ERISM) yields stress maps with exceptional precision and large dynamic range (2 nm displacement resolution over a >1 μm range, translating into 1 pN force sensitivity). This enables investigation of minute vertical stresses (<1 Pa) involved in podosome protrusion, protein-specific cell–substrate interaction and amoeboid migration through spatial confinement in real time. ERISM requires no zero-force reference and avoids phototoxic effects, which facilitates force monitoring over multiple days and at high frame rates and eliminates the need to detach cells after measurements. This allows observation of slow processes such as differentiation and further investigation of cells, for example, by immunostaining.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)864-872
JournalNature Cell Biology
Issue number7
Early online date19 Jun 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2017


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