Introduction to the Dicke model: from equilibrium to nonequilibrium, and vice versa

Peter Kirton, Mor M. Roses, Jonathan Keeling, Emanuele G. Dalla Torre

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

74 Citations (Scopus)
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The Dicke model describes the coupling between a quantized cavity field and a large ensemble of two-level atoms. When the number of atoms tends to infinity, this model can undergo a transition to a superradiant phase, belonging to the mean-field Ising universality class. The superradiant transition was first predicted for atoms in thermal equilibrium, but its experimental realizations required driven-dissipative systems. In this Progress Report, we offer an introduction to some theoretical concepts relevant to the Dicke model, reviewing the critical properties of the superradiant phase transition, and the distinction between equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions. In addition, we explain the fundamental difference between the superradiant phase transition and the more common lasing transition. Our report mostly focuses on the steady states of single-mode optical cavities, but we also mention some aspects of real-time dynamics, as well as applications to multimode cavities, superconducting circuits, and trapped ions.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1800043
Number of pages18
JournalAdvanced Quantum Technologies
VolumeEarly View
Early online date16 Oct 2018
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 16 Oct 2018


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